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Gnus (Emacs Newsreader) FAQ


Archive-name: gnus-faq      
Posting-frequency: monthly (on or about the 19th)      
Last-modified: Jun 25 12:33   

                      Gnus 5.x Frequently Asked Questions
                                       
------------------------------

Subject: Introduction

   This is the Gnus Frequently Asked Questions list.
   
   Gnus is a Usenet Newsreader and Electronic Mail User Agent implemented
   as a part of Emacs. It's been around in some form for over 6 years
   now, and has been distributed as a standard part of Emacs for much of
   that time. Gnus 5 is the latest (and greatest) incarnation. The
   original version was called GNUS, and was written by Masanobu UMEDA.
   When autumn crept up in '94, Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen grew bored and
   decided to rewrite Gnus.
   
   Its biggest strength is the fact that it is extremely customizable. It
   is somewhat intimidating at first glance, but most of the complexity
   can be ignored until you're ready to take advantage of it. If you
   receive a reasonable volume of e-mail (you're on various mailing
   lists), or you would like to read high-volume mailing lists but cannot
   keep up with them, then you definitely want to investigate Gnus for
   reading mail.
   
   This FAQ is maintained by Justin Sheehy. I would like to thank Steve
   Baur and Per Abrahamsen for doing a wonderful job with this FAQ before
   me.
   
   If you have a Web browser, the official hypertext version is at:
   <URL:http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/> . This version is
   much nicer than the unofficial hypertext versions that are archived at
   Utrecht, Oxford, Smart Pages, Ohio State, and other FAQ archives. See
   the resources question below if you want information on obtaining it
   in another format.
   
   The information contained here was compiled with the assistance of the
   Gnus development mailing list, and any errors or misprints are my
   (Justin Sheehy's) fault, sorry.
   
What's changed since last time?

    1. No changes this month.
       
   This file was last modified on Jun 25, 2001.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Table Of Contents

    1. Installation
          + Q1.1 What is the latest version?
          + Q1.2 Where do I get Gnus?
          + Q1.3 What Emacs versions are required?
          + Q1.6 Unsubscribing from the mailing list
          + Q1.7 How do I run Gnus on both Emacs and XEmacs?
          + Q1.8 What resources are available?
          + Q1.9 Gnus hangs on connecting to NNTP server.
          + Q1.10 Mailcrypt 3.4 doesn't work
          + Q1.11 What other packages can I use with Gnus?
          + Q1.12 How do I make Gnus start faster?
          + Q1.13 I've upgraded to 5.2 and my hooks no longer work
          + Q1.14 How do I specify the NNTP server?
          + Q1.15 What is the difference between persistent and
            unexpirable messages?
          + Q1.16 Does Gnus have MIME support?
    2. Customizing Gnus
          + Q2.2 How do I quote messages?
          + Q2.4 Any suggestions for all.SCORE?
          + Q2.6 I don't like the default WWW browser
          + Q2.9 Increasing score of favorite authors.
          + Q2.10 Multiple .signatures.
          + Q2.11 Gnus and compression hooks.
          + Q2.12 Using Gnus and other packages.
          + Q2.13 Changing Mail and News directories.
          + Q2.14 Gnus colors have problems with my background color.
          + Q2.15 How do I customize the Sender: line?
          + Q2.16 How do I customize the From: line? (or, how to fix a
            broken Message-ID:)
          + Q2.17 Gnus says my .signature is too long and it isn't
          + Q2.18 What replaces gnus-author-copy?
          + Q2.19 How do I launch Netscape when clicking on an URL?
          + Q2.20 Could I see someone else's ~/.gnus file?
          + Q2.21 Different headers for mail and news
          + Q2.22 Speeding up base64
          + Q2.23 Not viewing HTML
    3. Reading News
          + Q3.1 Kill file to Score file conversion
          + Q3.3 Using an authenticated NNTP server
          + Q3.4 Not reading the first article
          + Q3.5 Why aren't BBDB known posters marked in the summary
            buffer?
          + Q3.6 Cross posted articles aren't marked read.
          + Q3.7 How do I read already read messages?
          + Q3.8 How can nntp be evil?
          + Q3.9 Posting to foreign servers.
          + Q3.10 When I send a post, Gnus just hangs. What's wrong?
    4. Reading Mail
          + Q4.1 What does buffer changed on disk mean?
          + Q4.2 How do you make articles un-expirable?
          + Q4.3 How do I delete bogus nnml: groups?
          + Q4.4 What happened to my new mail groups?
          + Q4.5 Not scoring mail groups
          + Q4.6 How to keep groups always visible?
          + Q4.7 Group renumbering
          + Q4.8 Procmail and Gnus
          + Q4.9 Getting new mail, but not new news
          + Q4.10 Why can't I move articles?
          + Q4.11 Using Gnus for mail and never news
          + Q4.12 Compressed mail files
          + Q4.13 Using an IMAP server
          + Q4.14 Using multiple mail sources
          + Q4.15 Qmail delivery
          + Q4.16 How and why would I want to use pop3.el instead of
            movemail?
          + Q4.17 My splitting rules seem to miss a few messages. Why?
          + Q4.18 What is the difference between total-expire and
            auto-expire?
     _________________________________________________________________
   
------------------------------

                                1. Installation
                                       
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.1 What is the latest version of Gnus?

   Gnus 5.8 has been released!
   
   As of this posting, the latest Gnus version is 5.8.2. Gnus 5.8 should
   still be considered beta at this time, but is in feature-freeze and
   bugs are being actively fixed. Download your copy today.
   
   A warning for upgrading users, however: Due to the many changes in 5.8
   (especially mail sources and MIME) your dotfiles may not be
   forward-compatible. Please read the documentation before you upgrade.
   
   Gnus 5.0.13 is included in the official distribution of Emacs
   19.30/19.31 and has a version number of 5.1. Do not attempt to use
   this release of Gnus with other Emacsen, as the necessary required
   support has been stripped out of it. Gnus 5.2.38 aka Gnus 5.3 is
   included in Emacs 19.32 and all later versions of Emacs 19.x. Gnus 5.5
   is shipped with Emacs 20.x.
   
   Gnus 5.2.25 is included standard with XEmacs 19.14, Gnus 5.4.37 is
   included with XEmacs 19.15p7, Gnus 5.5 is included with XEmacs 20.4,
   and Gnus 5.6.45 is packaged alongside XEmacs 21.1.7.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.2 Where do I get Gnus?

   The latest version is available via HTTP at
   <URL:http://www.gnus.org/gnus.tar.gz> or anonymous FTP at
   <URL:ftp://ftp.gnus.org/pub/emacs/gnus/gnus.tar.gz>.
   Patches are available at <URL:http://www.gnus.org/patches/>.
   You can also fetch it from the North American mirrors:
   <URL:ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.gnus.org/pub/emacs/gnus/gn
   us.tar.gz>, <URL:ftp://gnus.xemacs.org/pub/gnus/ifi.uio.no/>,
   <URL:ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ifi.uio.no/pub/emacs/gnus/
   >, or <URL:ftp://aphrodite.nectar.cs.cmu.edu/pub/ding-gnus/>.
   The last site should only be used as a last resort.
   
   Or, get it from a mirror in South America:
   <URL:ftp://ftp.unicamp.br/pub/news.software/gnus/> or Australia:
   <URL:ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/gnus/>.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.3 Which version of Emacs do I need?

   Gnus 5.8.x requires an emacs version that is greater than or equal to
   Emacs 20.x or XEmacs 20.x.
   
   Prior to Gnus 5.2, at least GNU Emacs 19.28, or XEmacs 19.12 was
   recommended. GNU Emacs 19.25 has been reported to work under certain
   circumstances, but it doesn't officially work on it. 19.27 has also
   been reported to work.
   
   Because of Gnus 5.2's use of Common Lisp features present only in
   late-model emacsen, it will only work with Emacs 19.30 or later, and
   XEmacs 19.13 or later.
   
   Emacs 20.2 has many show-stopping bugs. If you are using Emacs 20.2,
   upgrade to 20.3.
   
   Gnus 5.4 requires emacsen at least as recent as Emacs 19.33 or XEmacs
   19.14.
   
   Gnus has been reported to work under VMS, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows
   NT 3.51, as well as Unix.
   
   OS/2 requires
(setq gnus-score-file-suffix "score")
(setq gnus-adaptive-file-suffix "adapt")

   in the user's .gnus.
   
   Ed Mccreary <forge@neosoft.com> writes:
   [For Microsoft Windows NT] Be sure to grab the nttcp.exe file needed
   to perform the winsock communication and configure emacs to use it
   instead of the default tcp. You will also need to put
(setq tcp-program-name "nttcp")

   in your _emacs file.
   
   Jack Vinson <jvinson@cheux.ecs.umass.edu> writes:
   Actually, any TCP program will work. I have tcp.exe from the people
   who are doing win32 ports of Gnu software. I found it at
   <URL:ftp://microlib.cc.utexas.edu/microlib/nt/gnu/gnubin.tar.Z>. Be
   warned that this is a large (7mb) archive of all sorts of stuff,
   including (for some reason) all the e-lisp files you will ever want. I
   just downloaded it and extracted the functions I wanted.
   
   Ron Forrester <rjf@infograph.com> writes:
   With the release of GNU Emacs 19.31, Microsoft Windows '95 & NT users
   no longer need nttcp.exe as Emacs now has open-network-stream built
   in.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.6 How do I unsubscribe from the Mailing List?

   Send an e-mail message to <URL:mailto:ding-request@gnus.org> with the
   magic word unsubscribe somewhere in it, and you will be removed.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.7 How do I run Gnus on both Emacs and XEmacs?

   You don't. Gnus is distributed with both emacsen, use the version of
   Gnus that comes with your emacs.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.8 What resources are available?

   There is the newsgroup Gnu.emacs.gnus. Discussion of Gnus 5.x is now
   taking place there. There is also a mailing list, send mail to
   ding-request@gnus.org with the magic word subscribe somewhere in it.
   NOTE: the traffic on this list is heavy so you may not want to be on
   it (unless you use Gnus as your mailer reader, that is). The mailing
   list is mainly for developers and testers.
   
   Jason L Tibbitts III <tibbs@hpc.uh.edu> writes:
   Archives of the Ding mailing list are easily accessible by using
   gnus-group-make-archive-group, by default bound to G a in the Group
   buffer. This presents you with a group containing the 500 most recent
   articles from the mailing list. When called with a prefix argument, as
   in C-u G a, the entire (rather huge) archive is fetched. The archives
   are made available via FTP by Jason Tibbitts (tibbs@uh.edu); complain
   to him about problems with access. The magic of accessing the archives
   is provided by Gnus.
   
   This mailing list is mirrored on the World Wide Web at
   <URL:http://www.gnus.org/list-archives/ding/>. There's a pretty handy
   search tool to help you find what you're looking for.
   
   There is a bidirectional Usenet gateway to the mailing list at:
   <URL:news://sunsite.auc.dk/emacs.ding>.
   
   Gnus has a home World Wide Web page at
   <URL:http://www.gnus.org/>.
   
   There is a Gnus info page at
   <URL:http://www.miranova.com/~steve/gnus-local.html>.
   
   Gnus has a write up in the comp.windows.x.apps FAQ at:
   <URL:http://www.ee.ryerson.ca:8080/~elf/xapps/Q-III.html>.
   
   The Gnus manual is also available on the World Wide Web. To find the
   mirror closest to you, go to:
   <URL:http://www.gnus.org/manual.html>.
   
   PostScript copies of the Gnus Reference card are available from
   <URL:ftp://ftp.cs.ualberta.ca/pub/oolog/gnus/>. They are mirrored at
   <URL:http://www.thphy.uni-duesseldorf.de/~gnu/doc/gnusref/>
   in Germany.
   
   An online version of the Gnus FAQ is available at
   <URL:http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/>. Off-line formats
   are also available:
   ASCII: <URL:ftp://gnus.xemacs.org/pub/gnus/gnus-faq>.
   PostScript: <URL:ftp://gnus.xemacs.org/pub/gnus/gnus-faq.ps>
   
   HOWTOs, Tips & Tricks forums, Sample Configurations, Screenshot
   Galleries and tons of angry fruitsalad can be found at
   <URL:http://my.gnus.org/>. This site is also the home of an excellent
   Gnus tutorial.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.9 Gnus hangs on connecting to NNTP server

   I am running XEmacs on SunOS and Gnus prints a message about
   Connecting to NNTP server and then just hangs.
   
   Ben Wing <wing@666.com> writes :
   I wonder if you're hitting the infamous libresolv problem. The basic
   problem is that under SunOS you can compile either with DNS or NIS
   name lookup libraries but not both. Try substituting the IP address
   and see if that works; if so, you need to download the sources and
   recompile.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.10 Mailcrypt 3.4 doesn't work

   You are attempting to use the mailcrypt 3.4 distribution with Gnus
   5.3. Mailcrypt 3.4 needs some minor patches to work with Gnus 5.[23],
   that are present in the version of mailcrypt distributed with XEmacs
   19.14 or later.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.11 What other packages work with Gnus?

  Mailcrypt
  
   Mailcrypt is an Emacs interface to PGP, written by Patrick LoPresti
   <patl@lcs.mit.edu> and Jin Choi <jin@atype.com>. It works, it installs
   without hassle, and integrates very easily. Mailcrypt can be obtained
   from
   <URL:http://www.nb.net/~lbudney/linux/software/mailcrypt.html>.
   
  Tools for Mime
  
   Tools for Mime is an Emacs MUA interface to MIME written by MORIOKA
   Tomohiko <morioka@jaist.ac.jp>, and KOBAYASHI Shuhei
   <shuhei-k@jaist.ac.jp>.
   
   Note:Do not use TM with Gnus 5.8.x or later. These versions of Gnus
   have native MIME support and should not try to use an external MIME
   library.
   
   It can be obtained from
   <URL:ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/GNU/elisp/mime/>. It has mirrors at:
   <URL:ftp://ftp.nis.co.jp/pub/gnu/emacs-lisp/tm/> (Japan)
   <URL:ftp://ftp.nisiq.net/pub/gnu/emacs-lisp/tm/> (USA)
   <URL:ftp://gnus.xemacs.org/pub/mime/jaist.ac.jp/> (USA)
   <URL:ftp://ftp.unicamp.br/pub/mail/mime/tm/> (Brasil)
   <URL:ftp://ftp.th-darmstadt.de/pub/editors/GNU-Emacs/lisp/mime/>
   (Germany)
   <URL:ftp://ftp.tnt.uni-hannover.de/pub/editors/xemacs/contrib/>
   (Germany).
   
   To use with Gnus add the line
(load "mime-setup")

   to your .emacs file before you initialize Gnus.
   
   Alternately, you can use gnus-setup.el to activate tm, bbdb,
   supercite, and other packages. See Question #2.12 for details.
   
   If you are using an XEmacs version of 19.15 or newer, you do not need
   tm as it is now included standard with XEmacs.
   
  Group Lens
  
   Group Lens is a collaborative filtering system that helps you work
   together with other people to find the quality news articles out of
   the huge volume of news articles generated every day. It was written
   by Brad Miller <bmiller@cs.umn.edu> as his PhD thesis. It is now
   distributed as a standard part of Gnus. A copy for Gnus 5 can be
   obtained at:
   <URL:http://www.cs.umn.edu/Research/GroupLens/>.
   
  Insidious Big Brother Database
  
   BBDB is a rolodex-like database program for GNU Emacs created by Jamie
   Zawinski <jwz@netscape.com> of Netscape fame. Jamie has recently given
   his blessing to a new version whose primary maintainer is Ronan Waide
   <waider@waider.ie>. This version is the result of the fork that was
   maintained by Matt Simmons for some time. The new home of BBDB is
   <URL:http://bbdb.sourceforge.net/> and considered official and
   somewhat stable.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.12 How do I make Gnus start faster?

   Make sure you kill your unsubscribed groups. This will make Gnus start
   much faster, and keep your .newsrc file sizes down to boot.
   
   Pranav Kumar Tiwari <pktiwari@eos.ncsu.edu> writes :
   I posted the same query recently and I got an answer to it. I am going
   to repeat the answer. What you need is a newer version of gnus,
   version 5.0.4+. I am using 5.0.12 and it works fine with me with the
   following settings:
(setq gnus-check-new-newsgroups nil
      gnus-read-active-file 'some
      gnus-nov-is-evil nil
      gnus-select-method '(nntp gnus-nntp-server))

   Francesco Potort <pot@cnuce.cnr.it> writes :
   I would rather write: 'ask-server [for the value of
   gnus-check-new-newsgroups] instead of nil. It is more useful to most
   people, and does not increase the load time too much.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.13 I've upgraded to 5.2 (or greater) and my hooks no longer work

   Gnus now uses a combined mode for editing mail and news posts called
   message-mode. All your hooks must change to reflect this. You can
   either use gnus-setup.el provided with Gnus 5.2 (please see Q2.12 for
   details), or you can make the changes by hand.
   
   In particular, mail-mode, news-reply-mode, and news-mode have all been
   replaced with message-mode.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.14 How do I specify the NNTP server?

   There are a variety of ways, all documented in the Gnus user's manual.
   
    1. (setq gnus-select-method '(nntp "news.somewhere.edu"))
    2. (setq gnus-select-method '(nnspool ""))
    3. If gnus-select-method is not set, Gnus will take a look at the
       NNTPSERVER environment variable. If that variable isn't set, Gnus
       will see whether gnus-nntpserver-file (/etc/nntpserver by default)
       has any opinions on the matter. If that fails as well, Gnus will
       try to use the machine that is running Emacs as an NNTP server.
    4. If gnus-nntp-server is set, this variable will override
       gnus-select-method. You should therefore set gnus-nntp-server to
       nil, which is what it is by default.
    5. You can also make Gnus prompt you interactively for the name of an
       NNTP server. If you give a non-numerical prefix to gnus (i.e., C-u
       M-x gnus), Gnus will let you choose between the servers in the
       gnus-secondary-servers list (if any).
       
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.15 What is the difference between persistent and unexpirable
         messages?

   Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsi@ifi.uio.no> writes: The terms are not
   synonymous, they are orthogonal.
   
   If you tap * on an article, you have made it persistent. Nothing you
   ever do, except using the M-* command, will remove it from the cache
   where it's stored.
   
   If you mark an article with the E mark, (ie., made it expirable), it
   will be deleted by the mail backend when it reaches a certain age. The
   persistent copy of the message will not be touched.
   
   The two terms are not related.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q1.16 Does Gnus have MIME support?

   Gnus 5.8.x has native fully-integrated MIME support.
   
   If you are using an earlier version of Gnus, there are some other
   packages that you can use with Gnus. A link to Tools for MIME can be
   found in the other packages question.
   
   Note: TM will not work in any version of Gnus that has native MIME
   support.
   
------------------------------

                              2. Customizing Gnus
                                       
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.2 How do I quote messages?

   I see lots of messages with quoted material in them. I am wondering
   how to have Gnus do it for me.
   
   This is Gnus, so there are a number of ways of doing this. You can use
   the built-in commands to do this. There are the ``F'' and ``R'' keys
   from the summary buffer which automatically include the article being
   responded to. These commands are also selectable as Followup and Yank
   and Reply and Yank in the Post menu.
   
   C-c C-y grabs the previous message and prefixes each line with
   `message-indentation-spaces' spaces or `message-yank-prefix' if that
   is non-nil, unless you have set your own `message-cite-function',
   which will be called to do the job.
   
   You might also consider the Supercite package, which allows for pretty
   arbitrarily complex quoting styles. Some people love it, some people
   hate it.
   
   If you decide to use Supercite, you need to modify more than just
   `mail-citation-hook'. You need something similar to the following:
(autoload 'sc-cite-original     "supercite" "Supercite 3.1" t)
(setq message-cite-function 'sc-cite-original)

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.4 Any good suggestions on stuff for an all.SCORE file?

   Here is a collection of suggestions from various sources:
   
  From "Dave Disser" <disser@sdd.hp.com>
  
   I like blasting anything without lowercase letters. Weeds out most of
   the make $$ fast, as well as the lame titles like "IBM" and "HP-UX"
   with no further description.
 (("Subject"
  ("^\\(Re: \\)?[^a-z]*$" -200 nil R)))

  From "Peter Arius" <arius@immd2.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
  
   The most vital entries in my (still young) all.SCORE:
(("xref"
  ("alt.fan.oj-simpson" -1000 nil s))
 ("subject"
  ("\\<\\(make\\|fast\\|big\\)\\s-*\\(money\\|cash\\|bucks?\\)\\>" -1000 nil r)
  ("$$$$" -1000 nil s)))

  From "Per Abrahamsen" <abraham@dina.kvl.dk>
  
(("subject"
  ;; CAPS OF THE WORLD, UNITE
  ("^..[^a-z]+$" -1 nil R)
  ;; $$$ Make Money $$$ (Try work)
  ("$" -1 nil s)
  ;; I'm important! And I have exclamation marks to prove it!
  ("!" -1 nil s)))

  From "heddy boubaker" <boubaker@cenatls.cena.dgac.fr>
  
   I would like to contribute with mine.
(
 (read-only t)
 ("subject"
  ;; ALL CAPS SUBJECTS
  ("^\\([Rr][Ee]: +\\)?[^a-z]+$" -1 nil R)
  ;; $$$ Make Money $$$
  ("$$" -10 nil s)
  ;; Empty subjects are worthless!
  ("^ *\\([(<]none[>)]\\|(no subject\\( given\\)?)\\)? *$" -10 nil r)
  ;; Sometimes interesting announces occur!
  ("ANN?OU?NC\\(E\\|ING\\)" +10 nil r)
  ;; Some people think they're on mailing lists
  ("\\(un\\)?sub?scribe" -100 nil r)
  ;; Stop Micro$oft NOW!!
  ("\\(m\\(icro\\)?[s$]\\(oft\\|lot\\)?-?\\)?wind?\\(ows\\|aube\\|oze\\)?[- ]*\
\('?95\\|NT\\|3[.]1\\|32\\)" -1001 nil r)
  ;; I've nothing to buy
  ("\\(for\\|4\\)[- ]*sale" -100 nil r)
  ;; SELF-DISCIPLINED people
  ("\\[[^a-z0-9 \t\n][^a-z0-9 \t\n]\\]" +100 nil r)
  )
 ("from"
  ;; To keep track of posters from my site
  (".dgac.fr" +1000 nil s))
 ("followup"
  ;; Keep track of answers to my posts
  ("boubaker" +1000 nil s))
 ("lines"
  ;; Some people have really nothing to say!!
  (1 -10 nil <=))
 (mark -100)
 (expunge -1000)
 )

  From "Christopher Jones" <cjones@au.oracle.com>
  
   The sample all.SCORE files from Per and boubaker could be augmented
   with:
        (("subject"
          ;; No junk mail please!
          ("please ignore" -500 nil s)
          ("test" -500 nil e))
        )

  From "Brian Edmonds" <edmonds@cs.ubc.ca>
  
   Augment any of the above with a fast method of scoring down
   excessively cross posted articles.
 ("xref"
  ;; the more cross posting, the exponentially worse the article
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -1 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -2 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -4 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -8 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -16 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -32 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -64 nil
 r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+" -
128 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\
S-+" -256 nil r)
  ("^xref: \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\S-+ \\
S-+ \\S-+" -512 nil r))

   Or see <URL:http://www.cs.ubc.ca/spider/edmonds/usenet/gnus/SCORE>
   which also includes pointers to my SMEGHEADS and BLACKLIST files.
   
  From "Hardrock" <dharland@kendaco.telebyte.com>
  
   (Original source unknown, this is used by permission from the Grubor
   FAQ 2.21).
  ("from"
   ("Law Doctor" -10000 nil s)
   ("Manus" -10000 nil s)
   ("Grubor" -10000 nil s)
   ("DrG" -10000 nil s))

  From "d. hall" <dhall@virage.org>
  
   Here's an example of using the orphan scoring rule to make reading of
   large newsgroups more pleasant, in this case comp.lang.c.
(("subject"
  ("windows" -100)
  ("dos" -100))
 (orphan -200)
 (mark-and-expunge -100))

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.6 I don't like the default WWW browser

   Now when choosing an URL Gnus starts up a W3 buffer, I would like it
   to always use Netscape (I don't browse in text-mode ;-).
   
   You should set your browse-url-browser-function:
(setq browse-url-browser-function 'browse-url-netscape)

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.9 How can I make favorite authors be highlighted in the Summary
         buffer?

   Per Abrahamsen <abraham@dina.kvl.dk> writes:
   Just increase their score, and they will be highlighted.
   
   You can increase the score of all articles written by Larry Wall in
   comp.lang.perl by entering the group, find an article written by Larry
   Wall, and type I A (Increase Author) or even better I a s p (Increase
   author by substring permanently). You will be prompted with the
   content of the From header for the current article, so you can edit
   trim string down to just Larry Wall if you want.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.10 How do I get multiple .signature files?

   Kai Grossjohann <Kai.Grossjohann@CS.Uni-Dortmund.DE> writes:
(defun my-signature ()
  (cond ((string-match "ding" gnus-newsgroup-name)
         "Signature for Ding")
        ((string-match "^nnml:" gnus-newsgroup-name)
         "Signature for mail groups")
        (t
         "Default signature")))
(setq message-signature 'my-signature)

   You get the idea ...
   
   Jack Vinson <jvinson@cheux.ecs.umass.edu> writes:
   For multiple signature files, I advise the message-insert-signature
   function to set message-signature-file to a random file from my
   signature directory: (I have files that look like sig1 sig2 etc in
   that directory).
;; random insertion of .signature file
;; Thanks to Glenn R Coombs: glenn@prl.philips.co.uk
(defvar grc-signature-dir   "~/.sig/")
(defvar grc-signature-base  "sig")

(defadvice message-insert-signature (before random-mail-sig-ag act comp)
  "Change the value of message-signature-file each time
`message-insert-signature' is called."
  (let ((files (file-name-all-completions
                grc-signature-base (expand-file-name grc-signature-dir))))
    (if files (let ((file (nth (random (length files)) files)))
                (setq message-signature-file (concat grc-signature-dir file))
                ))))

   Ralph Schleicher <rs@purple.UL.BaWue.DE> writes:
   Here's a version which will add a fortune cookie to your .signature.
(setq message-signature 'fortune)

(defvar fortune-program nil
  "*Program used to generate epigrams, default \"fortune\".")

(defvar fortune-switches nil
  "*List of extra arguments when `fortune-program' is invoked.")

(defun fortune (&optional long-p)
  "Generate a random epigram.
An optional prefix argument generates a long epigram.
The epigram is inserted at point if called interactively."
  (interactive "*P")
  (let ((fortune-buffer (generate-new-buffer " fortune"))
        (fortune-string "Have an adequate day."))
    (unwind-protect
        (save-excursion
          (set-buffer fortune-buffer)
          (apply 'call-process
                 (append (list (or fortune-program "fortune") nil t nil)
                         fortune-switches (list (if long-p "-l" "-s"))))
          (skip-chars-backward "\n\t ")
          (setq fortune-string (buffer-substring (point-min) (point))))
      (kill-buffer fortune-buffer))
    (if (interactive-p)
        (insert fortune-string))
    fortune-string))

   Bjorn Borud <borud@guardian.no> offers:
(setq message-borud-newsgroup-signature
      '(
        ("^no\\.test$"       . "~/.no.test-signatur")
        ("^no\\.irc$"        . "~/.no.irc-signature")
        ("^no\\.general"     . "~/.no.general-signature")
        ("^no\\.alt\\.frust" . "~/.no.alt.frustrasjoner-signature")
        ("^no\\.alt\\."      . "~/.no.alt-signature")
        ("www"               . "~/.www-signature")
        ("^no\\."            . "~/.no-signature")
        ("^alt\\.irc"        . "~/.alt.irc-signature")
        ("^alt\\."           . "~/.alt-signature")
        ("^comp\\."          . "~/.comp-signature")))

(setq message-borud-default-signature (expand-file-name "~/.signature"))


(defun message-borud-signature (group)
  "Find the signature file that applies to the newsgroup
specified by GROUP.  If this file is not found return the
value of message-borud-default-signature"
  (let ((tmp message-borud-newsgroup-signature))
    (while (and tmp (not (string-match (caar tmp) group)))
      (setq tmp (cdr tmp)))
    (if tmp
        (cdar tmp)
      message-borud-default-signature)))


;;; Standard stuff

(setq message-signature
      (lambda ()
        (progn
          (let
              ((sigfile (message-borud-signature gnus-newsgroup-name)))
            (if (file-exists-p sigfile)
                (save-excursion
                  (progn
                    (goto-char (point-max))
                    (insert "\n\n-- \n")
                    (insert-file-contents sigfile)
                    (goto-char (point-min)))))))))

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.11 Gnus and compression hooks

   Richard Pieri <ratinox@unilab.dfci.harvard.edu> writes:
   I just stumbled into a nasty gotcha, a conflict between Gnus (probably
   any version) and any on-the-fly file compression hooks. This morning,
   the code that pulls the system mailbox into a local Incoming file
   created a file called Incominga003.Z. The problem should be apparent:
   the .Z extension gets the file flagged as compressed, so the
   compression code tries to decompress it; since it is not compressed,
   this fails.
   
   The solution: do not allow periods in the pseudo-random Incoming file
   names.
   
   Editor's note: Similar behavior has been observed with jka-compr as
   well.
   
   This problem has been fixed in Gnus 5.4.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.12 Using Gnus and Other Packages

   Kevin J Hilman <khilman@vision.d.umn.edu> writes:
   How do you hook Supercite into September Gnus? Adding sc-cite-original
   to mail-citation-hook works for VM but not Gnus. There must be some
   message-mode hook I can add sc-cite-original to, but I cant seem to
   figure it out.
   
   Steve Baur <steve@miranova.com> writes:
   You're probably not using gnus-setup.el, but you should. So long as
   you have sgnus as a subdirectory of site-lisp in the standard location
   all you need to do put in your .emacs is:
(setq gnus-use-september t)
(load "/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp/sgnus/lisp/gnus-setup.el")

   and everything is set up for you.
   
   gnus-setup also handles integration with tm, bbdb, mailcrypt, vm, and
   mh-e. Set these variable to choose exactly what you want:
   
   gnus-use-tm [t]
          Set this if you want MIME support for Gnus
          
   gnus-use-mhe [nil]
          Set this if you want to use MH-E for mail reading
          
   gnus-use-rmail [nil]
          Set this if you want to use RMAIL for mail reading
          
   gnus-use-sendmail [nil]
          Set this if you want to use SENDMAIL for mail reading
          
   gnus-use-vm [nil]
          Set this if you want to use the VM package for mail reading
          
   gnus-use-sc [t]
          Set this if you want to use Supercite
          
   gnus-use-mailcrypt [t]
          Set this if you want to use Mailcrypt for dealing with PGP
          messages
          
   gnus-use-bbdb [nil]
          Set this if you want to use the Big Brother DataBase
          
   gnus-use-september [nil]
          Set this if you are using the experimental September Gnus
          
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.13 Changing Mail and News directories

   I don't like the default locations for storing Mail and News how do I
   change them?
   
   The following variables are used at present for News:
     * gnus-article-save-directory
     * gnus-kill-files-directory
       
   Mark Eichin <eichin@cygnus.com> writes
(setq gnus-startup-file "~/.mit-newsrc")
(setq nnml-directory "~/MITmail/")
(setq nnmail-crash-box "~/.mit-gnus-crash-box")
(setq nnml-newsgroups-file
  (concat (file-name-as-directory nnml-directory) "newsgroups"))

(setq gnus-message-archive-method
      '(nnfolder "archive"
                 (nnfolder-directory "~/MITmail/archive/")
                 (nnfolder-active-file "~/MITmail/archive/active")
                 (nnfolder-get-new-mail nil)
                 (nnfolder-inhibit-expiry t)))

   but that's only for mail, not news.
   
   An additional note: Be careful if you set variables such as
   nnfolder-directory in your ~/.emacs and then change them again at a
   later date. Server parameters are stored in your ~/.newsrc.eld and
   will need to be changed there as well.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.14 Gnus colors have problems with my background.

   Gnus colors don't look quite right on my background, and it'll take a
   bit of fiddling to get it right.
   
   Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsi@aegir.ifi.uio.no> writes:
   It's quite difficult to come up with a set of colors that work with
   the entire range of dark backgrounds. The current defaults seem to
   work quite well on very dark backgrounds (and very light backgrounds),
   but if you use mid-range background colours, you have to do some
   fiddling.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.15 How do I customize the Sender: line?

   Richard Krehbiel <rich@kastle.com> writes:
   The original poster wants to correct a broken Sender: line. If the
   value that Emacs computes is wrong, (mine is wrong too BTW) then
   making a right one is better, no?
   
   Per Abrahamsen <abraham@dina.kvl.dk> writes:
   No. If you think it serves a useful purpose for the user to change the
   value of the Sender field, then you do not understand the purpose of
   that field.
   
   The Sender field contains the following information: The user has
   customized the from address. Here is the original, uncustomized value.
   Thus, if you customize the Sender field in any way, it will be wrong.
   
   Addendum by Justin Sheehy:
   Per's advice is true for all systems where the (user-login-name) and
   (system-name) functions accurately describe your identity and host in
   such a manner that they can be combined to form a meaningful address
   that could be used to reach you. Regrettably, this is not true in all
   cases.
   
   Gnus attempts to follow mail and news RFCs by adding a Sender header
   when it detects that you are sending a message with a From address
   that is different from what it has guessed your local email address to
   be.
   
   There are two situations in which this guess will be incorrect.
    1. (user-login-name)@(system-name) should be a valid email address
       for you, but Gnus is creating an invalid Sender field.
       In this case, your system is most likely misconfigured. You should
       not change your Gnus configuration. Instead, track down the
       configuration problem and fix it.
    2. Due to your mail-reading setup, (user-login-name)@(system-name)
       does not produce a value that is meaningful in any way. This is
       the case for many windows users and users with NAT-based home
       networks, for example.
       If this is so, then you should override the functions
       (user-login-name) and (system-name) in your ~/.emacs file.
       
   However, if you are trying to change your Sender header just so that
   you will not have a correct email address anywhere in your headers,
   you should think again. There is no good reason to send news or mail
   with incorrect and unreachable headers. Among other things, this is a
   rude and selfish way to attempt to reduce one's flow of spam. Please,
   do not alter your From or Sender headers such that they are not
   deliverable mailboxes.
   
   Take a look at http://www.interhack.net/pubs/munging-harmful/ for just
   a couple of the reasons not to munge your address.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.16 How do I customize the From: line? (or, how to fix a broken
         Message-ID:)

   How do I change the From: line? I have set gnus-user-from-line to Gail
   Gurman <gail.gurman@sybase.com>, but XEmacs Gnus doesn't use it.
   Instead it uses Gail Mara Gurman <gailg@deall> and then complains that
   it's incorrect. Also, as you perhaps can see, my Message-ID is screwy.
   How can I change that?
   
   Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsi@aegir.ifi.uio.no> writes:
   Set user-mail-address to gail.gurman@sybase.com or mail-host-address
   to sybase.com.
   
   Andre Deparade <deparade@bartok.informatik.rwth-aachen.de> asked:
   What can I do, if I get this 'misconfigured_system_so_shoot_me'
   Message-ID when I try to post something?
   
   The solution is the same as for the above problem. Set either
   user-mail-address or mail-host-address to the correct value.
   
   In Gnus 5.4, the error message was changed to make this fix more
   obvious. The Message-ID, instead of saying that your system is
   misconfigured, will tell you to set mail-host-address.
   
   Please note that this also works with ISO-Latin 1 characters like:
(setq user-full-name "Finn Hkansson")

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.17 Gnus says my .signature is too long and it isn't

   Check for blank lines at the end. Blank lines count as well.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.18 What replaces gnus-author-copy?

   The BCC: or Fcc: field still works:
(setq message-default-headers "Fcc: ~/spool/sent.spool\n")
(setq message-default-mail-headers "Fcc: ~/spool/sent-mail.spool\n")
(setq message-default-news-headers "Fcc: ~/spool/sent-news.spool\n")

   Replace Fcc: with Bcc: if you wish.
   
   Another possibility is to use the Gcc: header:
(setq gnus-message-archive-method
  `(nnfolder
    "archive"
    (nnfolder-directory ,(nnheader-concat message-directory "archive"))
    (nnfolder-active-file
     ,(nnheader-concat message-directory "archive/active"))
    (nnfolder-get-new-mail nil)
    (nnfolder-inhibit-expiry t)))

(setq gnus-message-archive-group
  '((if (message-news-p) "misc-news" "misc-mail")))

   Kai Grossjohann <Kai.Grossjohann@CS.Uni-Dortmund.DE> adds:
   
   I use the following code to automatically add a Gcc header to every
   message. I also define a function which can be bound to a key in
   message-mode which toggles the Gcc header.
;; select group for Gcc
(defun kai-gnus-outgoing-message-group ()
  (cond ((and gnus-newsgroup-name
              (stringp gnus-newsgroup-name)
              (string-match "^nnml" gnus-newsgroup-name))
         gnus-newsgroup-name)
        (t "nnml:mail.misc")))
;; automatically add Gcc header
(setq gnus-outgoing-message-group 'kai-gnus-outgoing-message-group)
;; toggle Gcc header (bind this to a key in message-mode)
(defun message-toggle-gcc ()
  (interactive)
  (save-excursion
    (save-restriction
      (let ((pmin (progn (beginning-of-buffer) (point)))
            (pmax (progn
                    (beginning-of-buffer)
                    (re-search-forward (concat "^" mail-header-separator
                                               "$"))
                    (beginning-of-line)
                    (point))))
        (beginning-of-buffer)
        (narrow-to-region pmin pmax)
        (if (re-search-forward "^gcc: .*" nil t)
            (progn
              (beginning-of-line)
              (kill-line 1))
          (goto-char pmax)
          (insert (concat "Gcc: "
                          (kai-gnus-outgoing-message-group)
                          "\n")))))))

   Francisco Solsona <solsona@cs.utexas.edu> adds an alternate method of
   toggling the Gcc: as follows:
(defun toggle-gcc-header ()
  (when (y-or-n-p "gcc-it?: ")
    (kai-gnus-outgoing-message-group)))

(setq gnus-outgoing-message-group 'toggle-gcc-header)

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.19 How do I launch Netscape when clicking on an URL?

   New versions of Gnus use the browse-url package when you click a URL
   button. See the question on changing your default browser to alter its
   behavior.
   
   If you want something a bit faster, get Jamie Zawinsky's
   netscape-remote program, found at
   <URL:http://home.netscape.com/newsref/std/remote.c>. You then need to
   tell browse-url to use this instead of netscape:
(setq browse-url-browser-program "netscape-remote")

   For those using NT, Harald Backer <harald.backer@fou.telenor.no>
   supplies his setup:
(setq browse-url-browser-function
      ;; No window system at build time, ie.  site-start.el, ~/.emacs
      ;; or ~/.gnus
      (if window-system
          (if (eq system-type 'windows-nt)
              'shell-execute-url
            'browse-url-netscape)          ; or browse-url-mosaic
        'browse-url-w3))

(defun shell-execute-url (url &optional new-window)
  "Invoke the shell-execute-helper program to call ShellExecute and launch
or re-direct a web browser on the specified url."
  (interactive "sURL: ")
  (call-process shell-execute-helper nil nil nil url))

Also see <URL:http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/voelker/ntemacs.html>
for shell-execute-helper and other NT related stuff.

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.20 Could I see someone else's ~/.gnus file?

   David Lebel had a collection of ~/.gnus files available at
   <URL:http://www.lebel.org/gnus/>, but it seems to have been off the
   air now for a while. Perhaps it will return soon, or someone else may
   step up and fill the void.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.21 How do I use different headers for mail than for news?

   Check out the variables 'message-default-news-headers' and
   'message-default-mail-headers'. That is exactly what these variables
   are for.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q2.22 Base64 decoding and encoding appears to be horribly slow in
         Pterodactyl Gnus. What can I do about it?

   Hrvoje Niksic <hniksic@srce.hr> answers:
   Since the current Emacsen do not support base64 in native "C" code,
   Pterodactyl Gnus implements base64 decoding and encoding in Lisp. This
   is inherently slow because base64 operations consists of examining
   each character in turn, and doing arithmetics on them -- repeated for
   thousands of characters. However, Gnus allows you to use an external
   base64 decoder, if you have it.
   
   For example, if you have Nathaniel Borenstein's "metamail" package,
   here is how to tell Gnus to use its `mimencode' program to decode
   base64:
   
(setq base64-decoder-program "mimencode"
      base64-decoder-switches '("-u"))

(setq base64-encoder-program "mimencode")

   Note that, beginning with XEmacs 21.2 and GNU Emacs 20.4, the popular
   Emacsen will support base64 natively, which will be faster than even
   the external encoders, making above hack obsolete.
   
   Also note that uudecoding, as performed by mm-uu, is also done in Lisp
   by default. You can make Gnus use the external Unix decoder like this:
   
(setq mm-uu-decode-function 'uudecode-decode-region-external)

------------------------------

Subject: Q2.23 I don't want HTML to be automatically expanded in mail or news.
         What can I do?

   This question is only really relevant to Gnus 5.8.x or greater, as
   Gnus did not have native MIME capability before those versions.
   
   The variable mm-discouraged-alternatives may be helpful. If you do the
   following:
(setq mm-discouraged-alternatives
      '("text/html"
        "text/richtext"))

   It will always show the text/plain part of a multipart which has both
   a text/plain and a text/html part, for instance. However, if there is
   no plaintext part, Gnus will still process the HTML. If you wish to
   prevent that, you can do one or the other of the following:
    1. Use mm-inline-override-types.
       If you set this variable to the same value that
       mm-discouraged-alternatives is set to in the above example, the
       HTML will initially be buttonized instead of displayed.
    2. Use mm-inline-media-tests.
       Dale Hagglund <rdh@best.com>writes:
       I added the following to my .gnus file not too long ago.
(setq mm-inline-media-tests
      (cons '("text/html" nil (lambda (h) nil))
            mm-inline-media-tests))
       [...] text/html parts are not automatically displayed using w3 or
       any other browser; they are given buttons, and the html text is
       shown inline. if you click the button twice, gnus starts any
       text/html viewer specified in you .mailcap file.
       
------------------------------

                                3. Reading News
                                       
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.1 How do I convert my kill files to score files?

   A kill-to-score translator was written by Ethan Bradford
   <ethanb@ptolemy.astro.washington.edu>. It is available from
   <URL:http://www.ifi.uio.no/~larsi/ding-various/gnus-kill-to-score.el>
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.3 How do I use an NNTP server with authentication?

   Put the following into your .gnus:
 (add-hook 'nntp-server-opened-hook 'nntp-send-authinfo)

------------------------------

Subject: Q3.4 Not reading the first article.

   How do I avoid reading the first article when a group is selected?
    1. Use RET to select the group instead of SPC.
    2. (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil)
    3. elf@mailhost.ee.ryerson.ca (Luis Fernandes) writes:
This is what I use...customize as necessary...

;;; Don't auto-select first article if reading sources, or archives or
;;; jobs postings, etc. and just display the summary buffer
(add-hook 'gnus-select-group-hook
          (function
           (lambda ()
             (cond ((string-match "sources" gnus-newsgroup-name)
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
                   ((string-match "jobs" gnus-newsgroup-name)
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
                   ((string-match "comp\\.archives" gnus-newsgroup-name)
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
                   ((string-match "reviews" gnus-newsgroup-name)
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
                   ((string-match "announce" gnus-newsgroup-name)
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
                   ((string-match "binaries" gnus-newsgroup-name)
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first nil))
                   (t
                    (setq gnus-auto-select-first t))))))
    4. abraham@dina.kvl.dk (Per Abrahamsen) writes:
       Another possibility is to create an `all.binaries.all.SCORE' file
       like this:
((local
  (gnus-auto-select-first nil)))

and insert

        (setq gnus-auto-select-first t)
       in your .gnus.
       
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.5 Why aren't BBDB known posters marked in the summary buffer?

   Brian Edmonds <edmonds@cs.ubc.ca> writes:
   Due to changes in Gnus 5.0, bbdb-gnus.el no longer marks known posters
   in the summary buffer. An updated version, gnus-bbdb.el is available
   at the locations listed below. This package also supports autofiling
   of incoming mail to folders specified in the BBDB. Extensive
   instructions are included as comments in the file.
   
     * send mail to <URL:mailto: majordomo@edmonds.home.cs.ubc.ca> with
       the following line in the body of the message: get misc
       gnus-bbdb.el.
     * Or get it from the World Wide Web:
       <URL:http://www.cs.ubc.ca/spider/edmonds/usenet/gnus/gnus-bbdb.el
       >.
       
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.6 Cross posted articles aren't marked as read

   Ralf Helbing <helbing@monet.cs.uni-magdeburg.de> writes:
   Why do cross posted articles appear in every group they were posted to
   instead of only the first one? In other words: how can I have them
   marked as read in the current group if I read them already in another
   group?
   
   Gnus will read news overview files to build its article lists for a
   group. An (unfortunately) optional field contains information about
   where an article is crossposted to. If this is disabled, then Gnus
   will not be able to properly deal with crossposts.
   
   Get your system administrator to enable Xref in the news overview
   files.
   
   Failing that, if you add
(setq nntp-nov-is-evil t)

   to your .gnus, Gnus will do The Right Thing with respect to cross
   posts at the cost of slower group entry and exit.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.7 How do I read already read messages?

   Francesco Potort <pot@cnuce.cnr.it> writes:
   Just use C-u SPC or C-u RET for entering the group.
   
   Gnus 5.4 has a more convenient mechanism whereby you can mark
   individual groups so that they will always show previously read mail
   with:
(display . all)

   in the group parameters.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.8 Evil nntp

   Yair Friedman <yair@cs.huji.ac.il> writes:
   Does anyone has experience with setting nntp-nov-is-evil to t? What
   exactly will I gain or lose by setting this variable?
   
   Setting this variable only makes sense if netnews is set up on your
   system to not provide XREF (cross reference information) in the
   overview files Gnus reads to build group summaries.
   
   A quick test to see if you need to use it is this (substitute your
   nntp server, and use the last number returned on the 211 line as the
   parameter to XOVER):
   (Example courtesy of Christopher Davis <ckd@loiosh.kei.com>).
$ telnet news.somewhere.com nntp
LIST overview.fmt

You should see something like the following (on INN systems anyway):

215 Order of fields in overview database.
Subject:
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Xref:full

   If the Xref:full is missing, ask your news administrator to add it in.
   
   Assuming you have a broken newsfeed, you gain by setting
   nntp-nov-is-evil the ability for Gnus to mark all crossposted articles
   as read the first time you see them. Otherwise, every crossposted
   article is spam, and you see it over and over again if you also read
   the other groups it is crossposted to.
   
   You lose the ability to have Gnus fill in old headers to flesh
   partially read threads with old articles. This may not matter a whole
   lot if expiration times are short. Building group summaries is also
   somewhat slower, though if your network connection to the news server
   is decent this isn't a huge loss.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q3.9 Posting to foreign servers.

   Reading news off of multiple news servers is great, but posting to
   foreign servers fails. What do I do?
   
   Give a prefix to the posting command. That is, type C-u C-c C-c
   instead of C-c C-c.
   
   This will be changed in the near future so that postings will go to
   the server that the group is being read from when no prefix is given.
   
   Steinar Bang <sb@metis.no> suggests a workaround until then:
   
   Put the following in ~/.emacs or ~/.gnus:
   
;; Hack for posting on foreign servers
(add-hook 'message-setup-hook
          (lambda ()
            (local-set-key "\C-c\C-c" 'message-send-and-exit-with-prefix)))

(defun message-send-and-exit-with-prefix ()
  "Call the message-send-and-exit function with a positive number argument
to make it post the message on the foreign NNTP server of a group, instead
of the default NNTP server"
  (interactive)
  (message-send-and-exit 1))

------------------------------

Subject: Q3.10 Gnus hangs when I try to send a post to my news server. What is
         wrong and what can I do to fix it?

   Due to a bug in early versions of Gnus, it was sometimes unable to
   post consistently to certain servers, notably Typhoon. Sometimes it
   would fail on the first attempt but succeed if one tried to post the
   same article again.
   
   If you experience this problem, you should upgrade to a version of
   Gnus with a version number of 5.6 or greater. The most recent non-beta
   release is recommended.
   
------------------------------

                                4. Reading Mail
                                       
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.1 What does the message Buffer has changed on disk mean in a mail
         group?

   Your filter program should not deliver mail directly to your folders,
   instead it should put the mail into spool files. Gnus will then move
   the mail safely from the spool files into the folders. This will
   eliminate the problem. Look it up in the manual, in the section
   entitled "Mail & Procmail".
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.2 How do you make articles un-expirable?

   I am using nnml to read news and have used
   gnus-auto-expirable-newsgroups to automagically expire articles in
   some groups (Gnus being one of them). Sometimes there are interesting
   articles in these groups that I want to keep. Is there any way of
   explicitly marking an article as un-expirable - that is mark it as
   read but not expirable?
   
   Use ``u'', ``!'', `d' or `M-u' in the summary buffer. You just remove
   the `E' mark by setting some other mark. It's not necessary to tick
   the articles.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.3 How do I delete bogus nnml: groups?

   In reasonably new Gnusae (5.4.x and later) deleting groups is
   extremely easy. Just press
G DEL

   to remove the mail group.
   
   In very old versions of Gnus, it was rather tricky. If you are stuck
   with such a Gnus and want to remove mail groups, you basically have to
   kill the groups in Gnus, shut down Gnus, edit the active file to
   exclude these groups, and probably remove the nnml directories that
   contained these groups as well. Then start Gnus back up again.
   
   I recommend simply upgrading your Gnus.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.4 What happened to my new mail groups?

   I got new mail, but I have never seen the groups they should have been
   placed in.
   
   They are probably there, but as zombies. Press `A z' to list zombie
   groups, and then subscribe to the groups you want with `u'. This is
   all documented quite nicely in the user's manual.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.5 Not scoring mail groups

   How do you totally turn off scoring in mail groups?
   
   Use an nnbabyl:all.SCORE (or nnmh, or nnml, or whatever) file
   containing:
((adapt ignore)
 (local (gnus-use-scoring nil))
 (exclude-files "all.SCORE"))

   John S Cooper <John.Cooper@digitivity.com> mentioned that
   NT seems to prohibit creation of files containing `:' (presumably as
   it's the drive letter separator).
   
   Toby Speight <Toby.Speight@digitivity.com> writes:
   Under NT, you have to use "_" (underscore) instead of ":".
   I.e. "nnbabyl_all.SCORE"
   Works for me (with nnml_all.SCORE).
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.6 How to keep groups always visible

   How do you keep groups always visible in the Group buffer, whether or
   not they have any new articles in them?
   
   Either write a regexp matching the desired groups and place it in
   gnus-permanently-visible-groups, or set the visible group parameter.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.7 Group renumbering

   Thomas Larsen <lath@interlink.no> writes:
   I'm usinge the nnml backend to read my mail. To get rid of read mail,
   I either expire the article or use B DEL. When I have received more
   than 200 articles in a nnml group, I get prompted for how many
   articles to show when entering it. The problem is that there are only
   about 20 articles present in the group and it's quite annoying to get
   prompted for this every time. Is there a way to fix this without
   setting gnus-large-group to something very high? Can you somehow
   renumber the articles in a group? I'm using Gnus 5.2.1.
   
   Colin Rafferty <craffert@spspme.ml.com> writes:
   Yes.
   
   Enter the group, mark all articles, and then move them all to the
   current group. If they were spread out between 1 and 200, they will
   now all be numbered consecutively starting at 201.
   
   In response to the further question: Can this be done without breaking
   the xref info?
   Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsi@ifi.uio.no> writes:
   Well -- if these are Xreffed from a different group, this'll break the
   Xref info in the other groups. That is, if you (after renumbering the
   articles) read the articles in a different group, they won't be marked
   as read in the renumbered group.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.8 Procmail and Gnus

   For Gnusae with versions less than or equal to 5.7.x, Randal's advice
   is very useful:
   
   Randal Schwartz <merlyn@stonehenge.com> writes:
   With procmail, you cannot write directly into the nnml directories.
   You must create spool files that will be merged into the nnml
   directories at times of Gnus' choosing. Asynch delivery just isn't in
   the cards.
   
   I just posted my setup a week ago. Here it is one more time:
(setq
 gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnml ""))
 nnmail-use-procmail t
 nnmail-spool-file 'procmail            ; same as nnmail-use-procmail :-)
 nnmail-procmail-directory "~/.incoming/"
 nnmail-delete-incoming t
)

   And then I have procmail deliver to ~/.incoming/inbox.spool and
   ~/.incoming/list.traffic.spool and so on. The name before .spool
   becomes the nnml: folder in which the stuff will end up.
   
   If your Gnus has a version of 5.8 or later, you can use the following
   code instead of Randal's for a similar effect. See the manual section
   on "Mail Sources" for more information.
(setq
 gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnml ""))
 mail-sources '((directory :path "~/.incoming/" :suffix ".spool"))
 mail-source-delete-incoming t
)

------------------------------

Subject: Q4.9 Getting new mail, but not new news

   The standard technique is to place all your mail groups at levels 1 or
   level 2. Then you can do a 2 g, or 1 g which will then only fetch new
   mail and not bother with new news.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.10 Why can't I move articles?

   Steinar Bang <sb@metis.no> writes:
   Occasionally I get the message "Can't move article!", when I attempt
   to move an article from one nnml group to another, using
        B m

   in the summary buffer. Other articles can be moved without problem (on
   a set of process marked articles, some are moved, others are left
   untouched).
   
   Yair Friedman <yfriedma@JohnBryce.Co.Il> suggests:
   What is the value of nnmail-keep-last-article? If it is t and the
   article is last in the group, you can't move it.
   
   To this, Steinar Bang <sb@metis.no> adds:
   You should add that nnmail-keep-last-article can be set specifically
   for single groups, in the Group Parameters of that group. (ie. if the
   global setting is t, you can set it to nil for one particular group,
   by putting
        (nnmail-keep-last-article nil)

   in group parameters
        G p

   in the *Group* buffer. (It may work the other way around as well, but
   I haven't actually _verified_ that setting it to t in Group
   Parameters, will make it leave the last article, when expiring))
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.11 Using Gnus for mail and never news

   Sam Falkner <samf@beehive.frii.com> writes:
   I'd like to use gnus to do my email at work, without doing usenet news
   *at all*.
   
   Rich Pieri <rich.pieri@prescienttech.com> responds:
   Change your primary select method to your mail backend:

(setq gnus-select-method '(nnml ""))
(setq gnus-secondary-select-methods nil)

   Has been working fine for me since, oh, half way through the (ding)
   development cycle.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.12 Compressed mail files

   Piotr Pogorzelski <piotr.pogorzelski@ippt.gov.pl> writes:
   Is it possible to have nnml files compressed on disk and decompress
   them on-the-fly for reading ?
   
   Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsi@trym.ifi.uio.no> replies:
   Yes. Just gzip the files. You'll need to say `(require 'jka-compr)' in
   your .emacs, though.
   
   Note: this only works in Red Gnus (Gnus 5.4) and later.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.13 Using an IMAP server

   Gnus 5.8.x has the nnimap backend, which can be used to read mail on
   an IMAP server.
   
   Earlier versions of Gnus are unable to use IMAP.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.14 How do I get mail from multiple sources?

   I want to get mail from both my local spool directory and from a POP
   server. What do I do?
   
   Under Gnus 5.8.x, see the manual section Select Methods->Getting
   Mail->Mail Sources.
   
   For older Gnusae, just set nnmail-spool-file to a list of your mail
   sources. For example,
(setq nnmail-spool-file '("/var/spool/mail/dworkin" "po:dworkin"))

   note: The POP part of this example will work with the external
   movemail program, but not with Gnus' built-in pop3 library.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.15 Can I read mail that was delivered by qmail?

   Gnus 5.8.2 is capable of reading mail from maildirs, and even has a
   manual section describing the necessary settings.
   
   Earlier versions of Gnus have no built-in functionality for this, and
   there are a few different known workarounds, none of them ideal.
   
   If you really need maildir support, you should consider upgrading to
   Gnus 5.8.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.16 How and why would I use pop3.el instead of movemail?

   Why would you want to use pop3.el instead of an external movemail?
   
   Richard Pieri <ratinox@peorth.gweep.net> says:
   It does not require an external program, which is important on certain
   versions of Emacs running on certain operating systems that cannot
   properly handle inferior processes. It has a running count, x of y, of
   messages downloaded; feedback on a process is always a good thing. It
   does not convert your incoming mailbox to Babyl format. It does not
   pass password information to an external process insecurely.
   
   Why would you not want to use pop3.el instead of an external movemail?
   
   It does not handle multiple maildrops, so if you get your mail from
   multiple POP servers, or from a POP server and a local spool, it may
   not work right. A fix is on the to-do list.
   
   If you use an "expensive" authentication scheme such as KPOP
   (Kerberized POP). KPOP is not going to happen until such time as
   Kerberos is incorporated directly into Emacs.
   
   Using pop3.el
   
   Configure Gnus to use the external movemail program per documentation,
   then add the following line to your ~/.gnus:
   
   (setq nnmail-movemail-program 'nnmail-pop3-movemail)
   
   The following variables may need to be set manually if they are not
   inherited from your environment (or are simply incorrect or
   undefined).
   
   pop3-maildrop
   Your POP3 login name. Inherited from user-login-name, $LOGNAME, $USER;
   otherwise nil. Change this if your POP login is different from your
   local login.
   
   pop3-mailhost
   Server from which you get your mail. Inherited from $MAILHOST;
   otherwise nil.
   
   pop3-port
   Port your POP3 server is on. Defaults to 110.
   
   nnmail-pop-password-required
   't' if you need to supply a password. Defaults to nil. You will
   probably need to make this 't'.
   
   pop3-authentication-scheme
   authentication scheme, either 'pass or 'apop.
   
   pop3.el/nnmail-pop3-movemail currently does not support multiple
   maildrops.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.17 My splitting rules seem to miss a few messages. Why?

   If Gnus tried to match some of the regexps used in splitting against
   extremely long header lines, the match attempt would take far too long
   to be tolerable.
   
   To deal with this, Gnus excludes long header lines from the function
   that does the splitting. If a mail message has, for example, a To:
   header longer than 1024 characters, that line will not be considered
   for splitting purposes.
   
   Very recent versions of Gnus (pgnus, thus all official versions >=
   5.8) deal with this a bit better. In those versions, the long lines
   are truncated instead of excluded, and there is a variable,
   nnmail-split-header-length-limit, to control the threshold for
   truncation.
   
------------------------------

Subject: Q4.18 What is the difference between total-expire and auto-expire?

    auto-expire:
    
   When an article is read (the word `read' here being a verb, not a noun
   referring to the mark), Gnus also marks it as expirable (`E'). When
   the expiry process occurs, it explicitly uses the articles marked with
   `E' as the set of articles eligible for expiration.
   
    total-expire:
    
   No `E' marks are used or relevant at all. When the expiry process
   occurs, articles marked as read are eligible for expiration. Note that
   this means articles that are not unmarked and are not marked with
   either `!' or `?' as both of those marks are just special ways of
   saying "unread".
   
    The real difference:
    
   The benefit of auto-expire is that in really huge groups (several
   thousand messages) or groups with really old ticked of dormant
   messages, the expiry process will be much faster. This is due to the
   fact that Gnus has an explicit list of eligible articles, instead of
   having to rebuild such a list each time expiry is invoked.
   
   The benefit of total-expire is that it is simpler. There is no such
   thing as a special mark for expirable messages. All articles that are
   read and not marked otherwise will be expired once they are old
   enough.
   
------------------------------

   This FAQ is Copyright  1995, 1996 Free Software Foundation. Please
   send comments, and suggestions to Justin Sheehy
   <URL:mailto:dworkin@ccs.neu.edu>.


    
    
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